Other machines can use air cylinders to manipulate a F-1660 but need very high pressure to perform one operation. Some manufacturers make high-pressure rotary pumps — rated up machin-13t approximately 10, psi — but these pumps are expensive and may heat the fluid. When a circuit calls for a small volume of high-pressure oil or air, consider using an intensifier — sometimes called a booster. Most cylinder manufacturers build air- or hydraulic-powered intensifiers. Or you can use off-the-shelf cylinder parts to assemble your own booster.
Also, intensification is a natural function of single-rod cylinders and motor-type flow dividers. Air-oil intensifier symbol. Figure pictures the symbol for an air-oil prss. While the pneumattic shows two pistons with different diameters, pess actual intensifier consists of a piston pushing a rod. The large-area air piston pushes a small-area hydraulic ram against trapped oil. The difference between the two areas gives high-pressure capability at the small ram. This capability is indicated by the area ratio. If the air piston has a 5-in. With this area ratio, 80 psi acting on the air piston produces psi at the hydraulic piston.
Reciprocating air-oil intensifier. Stroke length dictates the maximum volume of high-pressure fluid from an intensifier configured as in Figure The booster in Figure produces the same pressure but an unlimited volume. A reciprocating intensifier takes fluid from a reservoir and forces it into the circuit. In effect, the reciprocating intensifier is a single-piston pressure-compensated pump.
The area ratio and air pressure determine the maximum hydraulic pressure. Intensifiers do not need relief valves because they stall at maximum pressure. Oversize-rod intensifier. The oversize-rod cylinder shown in Figure also is an intensifier. When estimating the relative force of cylinders with different bore sizes, remember that thrust increases with the square of the diameter. In other words, doubling the bore will quadruple the thrust. Speed Speed affects productivity, longevity, and controllability. Calculate the stroking speed of a pneumatic cylinder from: Likewise, air pressure that is barely capable of moving the load will hamper speed. With any fixed combination of valve, cylinder, pressure, and load, it is usually necessary to have adjustable control over cylinder speed.
Flow controls at the cylinder ports let users tune speed to their application. For most applications, unidirectional flow regulators installed to restrict flow out of the cylinder and permit free flow in give the best results. A regulator in the rod-end port controls extension speed, and one on the cap-end port controls retraction. There are two parts to cylinder air consumption. One is the volume the piston displaces. The other is the unswept volume from end-cover cavities, cylinder ports, connecting tubing, and valves.
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The unswept portion is likely to be a small percentage of the total and will vary with the installation. Otherwise, air starvation at critical times will cause performance to suffer. Additional considerations After sizing a cylinder for force and stroke, engineers have a lot of leeway in tweaking a cylinder so it best fits an application. Here are a few considerations. Port sizes and locations are usually dictated by bore size, but can be adjusted in custom designs. Envelope dimensions. The National Fluid Power Assn. Many models also have unique dimensions. Mounting configuration refers to how a cylinder attaches to the adjacent equipment. The large number of standard mountings — both rigid and articulated — usually ensures a cylinder can execute the specific movements an application requires.
Cylinder materials. The operating environment is the major factor that governs material choice. Pneumatic cylinders are typically made of steel, aluminum, stainless steel, brass, or engineered plastics. Some models combine several materials. Seal materials.
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Cylinder manufacturers use a variety of methods to seal the end caps and rod. Designers can specify alternative seal materials for applications that operate in extreme high or low ambient temperatures or are exposed to caustic chemicals. Position feedback. Magnetic cylinders have a band of magnetic material around the circumference of the piston and a nonmagnetic cylinder barrel.
BOOK 2, CHAPTER 13: Pressure intensifier circuits
The magnetic field travels with the piston as the rod strokes in and out. Mounting reed switches on the outside of the barrel — one at each end, for example — generates a signal each time the piston completes a stroke. If the piston makes metal-to-metal contact with the end covers, the result is noise and potential mechanical damage. Cushions in cylinders prevent such contact.
Adjustable cushions let operators control the rate at which cylinders decelerate at the end of stroke. Some cylinders have integral fixed cushions. They have a preengineered fixed cushion orifice that restricts exhaust airflow to slow the piston at the end of stroke. The amount of cushioning is repeatable but cannot be altered in the field. Only use noncushioned cylinders at slow speeds. To operate noncushioned cylinders faster, install external stops with shock absorbers. Position these to prevent contact between the piston and end covers. Cautionary tips An important design consideration is to keep cylinder thrust as close as possible to the centerline of the piston rod and free from misalignment or side thrust.
Cylinders are normally intended to push and pull without excessive side loads. Off-center loads can substantially reduce the service life of rod bearings and seals. Off-center and side loading are caused by improper mounting, cylinder deflection under load, machine frame deflection, and rod bending or sagging — as well as by poor machine design. A stop tube is a spacer between the piston and rod-end head. It increases the distance between the piston bearing and rod bearing when the rod fully extends. This configuration also helps in long-stroke applications. If the piston rod sees compressive axial loads, care must be taken to ensure its length, diameter, and load are within safe limits to prevent the exposed rod from buckling.
Most pneumatic cylinders are assembled with a coating of grease on the bore of the barrel and seals for service with nonlubricated air. If the compressed air supply is clean and dry, the grease will give the seals a long life without adding oil through an airline lubricator. However, contaminated air will gradually compromise the original grease lubricant and shorten seal life. Lubricated air will extend the life of the cylinder, but it will also wash out the original lubrication. So once lubricated air is introduced, it must always be used, and the lubricator should be regularly checked and maintained.
Engineering custom actuators Standard catalog components often cannot give OEM designers the level of performance they require. In these cases, custom designs may be warranted. Sometimes it involves combining bif or modified components in a novel configuration, other times it means inventing something completely new. Consider this approach when: The results are often better performance, reliability, and uptime, as well as lower overall equipment and operating costs. Here are a few examples. Baghouse cylinder. Engineers combined a standard NFPA cylinder with a directional valve, air filter, pressure regulator, and electrical wiring with junction box to build the baghouse-cylinder assembly.
The unit was factory assembled and tested. The customer only needed to run control wires directly to the terminal block — saving time by eliminating the need to wire all individual components. A mechanical lockout lets the cylinder isolate individual chambers within the baghouse for maintenance.
Reciprocating intensifier for increased volume
Mounting the valve and electronics directly to the cylinder provides quick response and reduces air consumption. In addition, the space-saving combination leaves room for other components in the air-pollution-control system. Unit-air assembly.