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Another national stock exchange, the American Stock Exchange AMEXlists the securities of more than corporations but handles only 4 percent of the annual share volume of boker traded on U. Some firms move up to the NYSE once they qualify for listing Stofk. Other Sotck choose to remain on the AMEX. Companies cannot be listed on both exchanges at the same time. The AMEX has become a major market, however, for exchange-traded funds and in options trading. Its market capitalization dwarfs both foreign and domestic markets. Unlike other financial markets, the NYSE trades mostly through specialists, financial professionals who match up buyers and sellers of securities, while pocketing the spread between the bid and ask price on market orders.

These exchanges list about to securities of firms located in their area. Regional exchange membership rules are much less strict than for the NYSE. The top regional exchanges are the Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and National formerly the Cincinnati exchanges.

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An electronic network linking the NYSE and many of the regional exchanges allows brokers to make securities transactions at the best prices. Regulation NMS makes price the most important factor in making securities trades, and all orders statuue go to the trading venue with the best price. Dealer Markets Unlike broker markets, dealer markets do not operate on centralized trading floors but instead use sophisticated telecommunications networks that link dealers throughout the United States. Buyers and sellers do not trade securities directly, as they do in broker markets.

They work through securities dealers called market makers, who make markets in one or more securities and offer to buy or sell securities at stated prices. A security transaction in the dealer market has two parts: An average of 1. It provides up-to-date bid and ask prices on about 3, of the most active OTC securities.

Its sophisticated electronic communication system provides faster transaction speeds than traditional floor markets and is the main reason for the popularity and growth of the OTC market. The securities of many well-known companies, some of which could be listed on the organized exchanges, trade on the NASDAQ. The stocks of most commercial banks and insurance companies also trade in this market, as do most government and corporate bonds. There are two OTC markets: These markets generally list small companies and have no listing or maintenance standards, making them attractive to young companies looking for funding. Investing in OTC companies is therefore highly risky and should be for experienced investors only.

Alternative Trading Systems In addition to broker wtatue dealer markets, brokre trading systems such as electronic communications networks ECNs make securities transactions. ECNs are private trading networks that allow institutional traders and some individuals to make direct transactions in what is called the fourth market. ECNs bypass brokers Stoc, dealers to automatically match electronic buy and sell orders. They are most effective for high-volume, actively traded stocks. Money managers and institutions such Stok pension funds and mutual funds bdoker large amounts of money to invest like ECNs because they hroker far less than other trading venues. Global Trading and Foreign Exchanges Improved communications and the elimination of many legal barriers brpker helping the securities markets go global.

The number of securities listed on exchanges in more than one country is growing. Foreign securities are now traded in the United States. Likewise, foreign investors can easily buy U. Stock markets also exist in foreign countries: The number of big U. Emerging markets such as India, whose economy has been growing 6 percent or more a year, continue to attract investor attention. The Sensex, the benchmark index of the Bombay Stock Exchange, increased close to 40 percent between and as foreign investors continue to pump billions into Indian stocks. Why should U. The same is true for investors, who may find that they can earn higher returns in international markets. Regulation of Securities Markets Both state and federal governments regulate the securities markets.

The states were the first to pass laws aimed at preventing securities fraud. But most securities transactions occur across state lines, so federal securities laws are more effective. In addition to legislation, the industry has self-regulatory groups and measures. Securities Legislation Congress passed the Securities Act of in response to the stock market crash and subsequent problems during the Great Depression. It protects investors by requiring full disclosure of information about new securities issues.

The issuer must file a registration statement with the SEC, which must be approved by the SEC before the security can be sold.

The act was amended in to give the SEC authority over the dealer markets as well. The amendment included rules for operating the stock exchanges and granted the SEC control over all participants exchange members, brokers, dealers and the securities traded in these markets. Brokeer act also banned insider Stck, the use of information that is not available to the general public to make profits on securities transactions. Because of lax enforcement, however, several big insider trading scandals occurred during the late s. The Insider Trading and Fraud Act of greatly increased the penalties for illegal insider trading and gave the SEC more power to investigate and prosecute claims of illegal actions.

Other important legislation includes the Investment Company Act ofwhich gives the SEC the right to regulate the practices of investment companies such as mutual funds managed by financial institutionsand the Investment Advisers Act ofwhich requires investment advisers to disclose information about their background. In response to corporate scandals that hurt thousands of investors, the SEC passed new regulations designed to restore public trust in the securities industry. Regulation FD requires public companies to share information with all investors at the same time, leveling the information playing field.

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The broker had no evidence that the deals had been authorised. Sebi rules make it mandatory for brokers to maintain records of telephone calls with clients. However, not all investors are so lucky. Brokers manage to get away by exploiting loopholes in the law. They are able to do so because few investors are aware of the rules or their rights. In our cover story this week, we look at the tricks that brokers deploy to take investors for a ride, and how you can avoid falling into these traps.

Is your stock broker cheating you? Here's how you can avoid being duped

You are given a lengthy application form and a voluminous agreement booklet with clauses in small print. Very few investors have the patience to go through the fine print or the ability to decipher the legalese. The relationship manager helpfully puts crosses at the places you need to sign on the agreement. Do so without reading the clauses and you could be headed for disaster. What should you do? Take time to go through the form and the agreement. In particular, pay attention to the power of attorney PoA section.

The PoA allows the broker to transact on your behalf. When you sign on the dotted line on the PoA dtatue, you basically sign your rights stattue. InSebi issued new guidelines for PoA to intermediaries following large-scale complaints of misuse. These new rules curtailed some of the actions broked a broker could take on your behalf. Even so, a broker can transfer shares sold by you to the stock exchange, pledge stocks to meet your margin requirements, stafue apply for brokrr funds, IPOs, rights, and offer of shares based on your instructions. He can also transfer funds from your bank account for your settlement obligations and margin requirements, as well as recover dues of your trading activity or other charges.

Some investors blindly sign on the form with a brokerage firm and give PoA for moving funds from their bank accounts, whenever required. They do so because it is very convenient. When they place orders on phone, the money automatically moves from their savings accounts to their trading accounts. However, this convenience can cost them dearly if their brokerage firm executes unauthorised trades from their accounts. Ideally, the investor should transfer money from his savings account to the brokerage account whenever needed.

He cannot also transfer stocks for offmarket trades or merge the balance from other accounts to nullify debit in any other trading account. The tempo rises when the markets are on the upswing. Before you fall for the bait, remember that the broker makes money every time you transact.

Have a Question? Ask our expert

His goal is to get you to buy and sell at a furious pace. What is not so certain is whether you will make profits. However, your broker may not care. Whether you make or lose money, he will earn his brokerage fee. When you buy a mutual fund, your money is invested across a basket of well-chosen stocks. You can be sure the fund manager and his team have researched the stocks threadbare before including them in the portfolio. Investing on the basis of tips from your broker is a different ball game. The risk is considerably higher and avoidable.

Instead, for each suggestion, conduct your own checks. Is the valuation attractive? Or has the stock become over-valued? Check the returns from your stock investment. Though derivatives have their uses, these leveraged instruments can become very dangerous in the hands of retail investors. This is also the area where the maximum cases of unauthorised trading take place. Customers often give consent to the relationship manager to trade on their behalf. More often than not, losses follow and the customer is left holding the can. While you can indeed make lots of money in this space, you can also incur steep losses. Keep a close eye on all the SMSes and e-mails from your broker alerts to customers after every transaction have become mandatory.

Besides the brokerage commissions, another source from which brokers make money is by getting you to engage in margin trading. Under this arrangement, the broker lends you money to trade against the stocks lying in your account.


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