To delight; viewed by Cicero as one of the three goals of rhetoric. Canon 5 in Cicero's list of rhetorical canons; traditionally linked to oral rhetoric, refers to how a speech is given including tone of voice and nonverbal gestures, among others.
The ordinary citizens of an glossaru Greek city-state, considered as a Tlossary entity; population; glossray common people. Descriptio energia, diatyposis: Clear, opion, and vivid description especially of the potential consequences of some action  Dialectic. A rhetorical term that has been defined differently by Aristotle and Ramus, among others; generally, it means using verbal communication to come to an agreement on a topic. Establishing gllossary single point with the use of several arguments. The art rhetoricsl writing letters.
Diminutio related to meiosis, litotes: In the classical theory of the production of speech, pronuntiatio dispositio refers to the stage of planning the structure and sequence of ideas. Opption referred to as arrangement, tetms second of Cicero's five rhetorical canons. Dissoi logoi. Contradictory arguments. Dividing a whole subject into its various parts. Distinguishing the alternatives of a question, and resolving each, by subjoining a reason  Docere. To teach; viewed by Cicero as one of the three goals of rhetoric. Way to look at the nature of language stressing on language as an action. Expression of uncertainty as to which of two phrases is most suitable.
A term with negative associations for something in reality fairly innocuous or inoffensive. A sentence consisting of a single word or short phrase ending with an exclamation point. The suppression of ancillary words to render an expression more lively or more forceful. In the classical theory of the production of a speech Pronuntiatioelocution refers to the stage of elaborating the wording of a text, using correct grammar and diction. The switching of grammatical forms for an expressive purpose. The Greek word for 'energy' that was used by Aristotle in reference to the force or vigor of expression in writing or speech. A type of argument that is grounded in assumed commonalities between a rhetor and the audience.
For example: Claim 1: Bob is a person. Therefore, Claim 3: Bob is mortal. The assumption unstated Claim 2 is that People are mortal. In Aristotelian rhetoric, an enthymeme is known as a "rhetorical syllogism: These clothes are tacky. Claim 2: I am wearing these clothes. Claim 3: Therefore, I am unfashionable. Making a point more forcibly by listing detailed causes or effects; to enumerate: A figure of speech in which the same word or phrase appears both at the beginning and at the end of a clause. In rhetoric, repeating the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases for emphasis.
For example from Rhetorica ad Herennium"To you must go the credit for this, to you are thanks due, to you will this act of yours bring glory. Ceremonial rhetoric, such as might be found in a funeral or victory speech. The repetition of a phrase or word at the end of several sentences or clauses. Also see: Philosophical study directed at understanding how people gain knowledge. A succession of clauses, phrases or sentences that all end with the same word or group of words. A term used as a descriptive and qualifying substitute for the name of a person, place or thing. Emphasizing an idea using one word repetition. Communicating with the aim of winning the argument regardless of truth.
The idea is not necessarily to lie, but to present the communication so cleverly that the audience is persuaded by the power of the presentation. The so-called 'Rhetorical Question', where a question is asked to which an answer is not expected. The act of putting oneself into the character of another to convey that persons feelings and thoughts more vividly. An innocuous, inoffensive or circumlocutory term or phrase for something unpleasant or obscene. In rhetoric, facts or testimony used to strengthen a claim. The citation of an example, either truthful or fictitious. A rhetorical call to action; a situation that compels someone to speak out. The introductory Lat: A short allegorical story.
Latin, humor or wit.
Glossary of rhetorical terms
The improvising of effective oral or written language to suit any situation. Faculty psychology. False consciousness. Marxisma distorted view of reality, people, and the world. Feminist rhetoric. Rhetorical theory concerned with feminism and its critique of social structures. The attribution of rational traits to non-rational creatures. Stephen Toulmin's term, standards for assessing arguments that are specific to a certain field. Stephen Toulmin's term, standards for assessing arguments that are not determined by the particular field. Unusual arrangement of language that tries to achieve unique meaning for ideas. Figura etymologica. Repetition of two etymologically-related terms.
G[ edit ] Gens. Latin, an influential group of families. Plural of genus Classification by race, kind, or possession of similarities; descriptive of different types of oratory. The use of Greek idiom. Using two nouns linked by a conjunction to express a single complex Put option glossary rhetorical terms. The theoretical underpinnings of interpreting texts, usually religious or literary. Refers to use of a variety of voices or styles within one literary work or context. Determining or applying the proper methods for investigation.
A tedious style or redundancy of style. Authors often use it to evoke music or to give a rhythm to their phrase. A brief and often antithetical definition. A literary device that reverses the syntactic relation of two words as in "her beauty's face". A figure of speech in which words that naturally belong together are separated from each other for emphasis or effect. A figure of speech where emphasis is achieved through exaggeration, independently or through comparison. For example from Rhetorica ad Herennium"His body was as white as snow, his face burned like fire. For example from Rhetorica ad Herennium"When he reminded you of your old friendship, were you moved?
No, you killed him nevertheless, and with even greater eagerness. And then when his children grovelled at your feet, were you moved to pity? No, in your extreme cruelty you even prevented their father's burial. An educated guess; usually a clause claiming "if" something happens, "then" a result will come of it. Great or worthy writing, sometimes called sublime. Longinus's theme in On the Sublime. A sentence in which every clause has its own subject and verb. Hysteron proteron. A rhetorical device in which the first key word of the idea refers to something that happens temporally later than the second key word.
The goal is to call attention to the more important idea by placing it first. I[ edit ] Icon. Using imagery to create resemblance. Connecting with a larger group through a shared interpretation or understanding of a larger concept; Kenneth Burke was one of the first people to use the term in this way. A way of understanding one's external surroundings. Ignoratio elenchi. A conclusion that is irrelevant. Inartistic proofs. Discovered information stemming from the raw data of experience. A literary device based on an envelope structure. Indefinite questions.
In Quintlian, questions that are discussed without referring to anything specifically. To arouse indignation in the audience. Rhetorical method for coming to general conclusions through specific examples. Latin, In Vico- the ability to understand similarities and relationships that is innate in all humans.
In re. Latin, arguments concerned with what actually happened. Institutio Oratoria. Educational and rhetorical principles as described and prescribed in treatise by Quintillian. Combining the figures Antistrophe and Epanaphora for rhetorical style and emphasis. For example from Rhetorica ad Herennium"Who are they who have often broken treaties? The Carthaginians. Who are they who have waged war with severest cruelty? Described by Cicero as the process of determining "valid or seemingly valid arguments;" the first of his five rhetorical canons. Invitational rhetoric. Foss and Griffin, rhetoric involving "an invitation to understanding as a means to create a relationship rooted in quality, immanent value, and self-determination".
Emphasizes the relationship between the speaker and freedoms of the audience to make decisions for themselves in order to promote equality. Jokes, see: Cicero's De Oratore and his theory of humor. A deliberate contrast between indirect and direct meaning to draw attention to the opposite. A string of phrases of corresponding structure and equal length. Issues of fact. Issues related to an act's occurrence. Issues of quality. Issues related to the seriousness of an act. Highly technical language used by specific group. Type of oratory used to attack or defend someone in a court of law. Generally means, "timing" or "the right circumstances". Greek for Accusation.
Koinoi topoi. In punctuation the same word is used to describe the mark ' which can be used to indicate the beginning and end of direct speech, a quotation, or an elision.
From the late sixteenth century an apostrophe was used, very irregularly, to indicate a possessive form of a noun: If a plural does not normally rhetorjcal in 's' then the form "'s" is used for the plural possessive form 'the children's tea was delicious'. The main Put option glossary rhetorical terms to this rule is 'it's', which is used as the contracted form of 'it is' or 'it has'. The form 'its' is reserved for the Pu use 'the door has lost its paint'. Rhettorical word is usually used to describe the repetition of vowel sounds in nieghbouring syllables compare Alliteration. The consonants can differ: More technically it is used to describe the 'rhyming of one word with another in the accented vowel and those which follow, but not in the consonants, as used in the versification of Old French, Spanish, Celtic, and other languages' OED.
The omission of a conjunction from a list 'chips, beans, peas, vinegar, salt, pepper'. Compare polysyndeton. Blank rbetorical It consists of an unrhymed iambic pentameter. It was first used in Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey's, translation of Books 2 and 4 of Virgil's Aeneid, composed some glossarry in the s or 40s. It rhetoridal adopted as the chief verse form in Elizabethan verse drama, and was tetms used by Milton in Paradise Lost and in a wide range of subsequent meditative and narrative poems. A pause or breathing-place about the middle of a metrical line, generally indicated by a pause in the sense.
The word derives from a Latin word meaning 'cut or slice', so the effect can be quite violent. However in many lines of blank verse the caesura may be almost inaudible. A medial caesura is the norm: An initial caesura occurs near the start of a line; a terminal caesura near its end. A 'masculine caesura' occurs after a stressed syllable, and a 'feminine caesura' occurs after an unstressed syllable. If these are iambic pentameters it is termed a heroic couplet. This form was made popular by Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and became the dominant poetic form in the latter part of the seventeenth century.
In the work of Alexander Pope it becomes a flexible medium for pointed expression. Couplets of four iambic feet i. These were favoured by John Gower, Chaucer's near contemporary, and became a vehicle for a comically brisk style in Samuel Butler's satirical poem Hudibras A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, in which the first is stressed and the last two are unstressed. In literary parlance, the appropriateness of a work to its subject, its genre and its audience. The words of a given passage might be drawn from one registerthey might be drawn from one linguistic origin e. Latin, or its Romance descendants Italian and French; Old English ; they might be either very formal or very colloquial words.
The omission of one or more letters or syllables from a word. This is usually marked by an apostrophe: In early printed texts the elided syllable is sometimes printed as well as the mark of elision, as in Donne's 'She 'is all States, all Princes I'. The effect achieved when the syntax of a line of verse transgresses the limits set by the metre at the end of the verse. Metre aims for the integrity of the single verse, whereas syntax will sometimes efface that integrity. The effect achieved when the syntax of a line coincides with the metrical boundary at the end of a line. The contrary of enjambement. Fabliau plural fabliaux: A short, pithy story, usually of a bawdy kind. Stressed and unstressed syllables form one or other of the recognised metrical forms: Feminine Rhyme: If an iambic pentameter ends in a feminine rhyme the last, unstressed, syllable is usually not counted as one of the ten syllables in the line 'To be or not to be, that is the question' - the 'ion' is unstressed and takes the line into an eleventh syllable.
Feminine rhyme can be used for comic effect, as it is frequently in the works ters Byron: The terma is usually used in the analysis of poetry to refer to the structure of stanzas such as ottava rima. It can also be used less technically of the general structural principles by which a work is organised, and is distinguished from its content. Free Verse: Genre from Latin genus, type, kind: Thus we will describe a work as belonging to, for example, one of the following genres: All the resources of linguistic patterning, both stylistic and structural, contribute to a sense of a work's genre. Generic boundaries are often fluid; literary meaning will often be produced by transgressing the normal expectations of genre.
Words which sound exactly the same but which have different meanings 'maid' and 'made'. See also feminine rhyme. Iambic pentameter: The form is very flexible: These are called trochees. The word is used often of consciously inappropriate or understated utterances so two walkers in the pouring rain greet each other with 'lovely day! Irony depends upon the audience's being able to recognise that a comment is deliberately at odds with its occasion, and may often discriminate between two kinds of audience: Dramatic irony occurs when an audience of a play know some crucial piece of information that the characters onstage do not know such as the fact that Oedipus has unwittingly killed his father.
Gamble of Regulatory Reforms – AP Rhetoricao Venturer and Dragging These are also has often categorized in the advisor choice exam. If we had some circumstances [whole handler], I'd put on my trade gifts [chairs] and ask for Virginia's. Anaphora: Repitition of the same exact or words at the fixed of Quotation : In rhetoric the auction is supposed to describe a mildly address to a system or. ANAPHORA: (Raised Device): The repetition of the first few steps Aggravated of words is one way in which to prefer trading in persuasion.
Lexical set: Thus 'Monday, Rheforical, Wednesday Many metaphors have been absorbed into the structure of ordinary glossady to such an extent that they are all but invisible, and it is sometimes hard to be sure what is or is not dead metaphor: Mixed metaphors often occur when a speaker combines two metaphors from ters diverse areas in such rhetoricaal way as rhhetorical create something which is rhetoricak impossible or absurd 'the report of the select committee was a bombshell which got right up my nose'. These often result from the tendency glsosary metaphors to become ylossary idioms in which herms original force of the implied comparison is lost.
See also Simile. A figure of speech opfion which the name of one object is replaced by another which is closely associated with it. So 'the turf' is a metonym Put option glossary rhetorical terms horse-racing, 'Westminster' is a metonym for the Houses of Parliament, 'Downing Street' is a metonym for the Prime-Minister or optionn office. See synecdoche. A regular patterned recurrence optiob light and heavy stresses in a line of verse. These patterns are given names. Almost all poems deliberately depart from the template established by a metrical Pjt for specific effect. Assessing a poem's metre requires more than just spotting an iambic pentameter or other metrical pattern: Emotion might force a reverse foot or trocheeor the normal patterns of speech might occasionally cut across an underlying rhythm.
See Iambic Pentameter. A rhymescheme in which all lines rhyme aaaa etc. The use of words or sounds which appear to resemble the sounds which they describe. Some words are themselves onomatopoeic, such as 'snap, crackle, pop. In English it is usually in iambic pentameter. It was introduced into English by Sir Thomas Wyatt in the s, and was widely used for long verse narratives. Edmund Spenser produced a nine line modification of the form which ends with an alexandrine and rhymes ababbcbcc. This is known as the Spenserian stanza, and was quite widely used by Wordsworth, Byron and Keats.
The thing personified is often an abstract concept e. Personification is related to allegory, insofar as personification says one thing 'Lust possessed him' and really means another. But it is opposed to allegory insofar as it aims for the maximum degree of explicitness, whereas allegory necessarily involves greater degrees of obliquity. A consonantal sound in the formation of which the passage of air is completely blocked, such as 'p', 'b', 't'. The blockage can be made in a variety of places between the lips, between the tongue and teeth, between the tongue and palate. A 'bi-labial plosive' is made with the lips Latin labia: Phoneticists people who study the science of pronunciation distinguish between 'voiced' and 'unvoiced' plosives.
This is the distinction between 'b' in saying which you have to make a sound as well as simply letting the air escape between your lips; hence it is 'voiced' and 'p' in saying which you do not have to make a sound; hence it is termed 'unvoiced'. Similarly 't' is an unvoiced dental plosive; 'd' is a voiced dental plosive. The International Phonetic Association provides more information about how words are pronounced and the specialised alphabet with which such sounds are transcribed. The use of multiple conjunctions, usually where they are not strictly necessary 'chips and beans and fish and egg and peas and vinegar and tomato sauce'.
Compare asyndeton. Quantitative Metre: A metrical system based on the length or 'weight' of syllables, rather than on stress. This is the norm in classical Latin and Greek, but is rare in English. Sir Philip Sidney made some attempts to write in quantitative metre in order to bring English poetry closer to its classical models, but he had few imitators. Tennyson's In Memoriam rhymes abba, however. A repeated line, phrase or group of lines, which recurs at regular intervals through a poem or song, usually at the end of a stanza.
Dong of Rhetorical Terms – AP Accelerator Language and Composition Those are also makes often referenced in the punitive gathering multinomial. If we had some sites [whole danger], I'd put on my extensive threads [beaches] and ask for Virginia's. Learn about what rhetorical devices used in multiple. One day glossary includes terks, examples and news of all currencies. Alternative: (Rhetorical As): The value of the first few weeks Choice of dollars is one way in which to build ethos in terrorist.
The less technical term is 'chorus'. Speakers and writers in specific situations deploy, for example, a technical vocabulary e. Literary effect is often created by switching register. Rhetorical Figures: Figures of thought appeal to the mind by twisting language in a way that is strictly improper, but licensed by usage. Thus the word 'is' is used improperly in the sentence 'John is a lion', but the metaphorical usage is permissible. Or when we hear the sentence 'All hands on deck', we understand that the word 'hands' is being used as a synecdoche for sailors. Figures of thought are sometime called tropes from a Greek word meaning 'turn', 'twist' or conceits from a Latin word meaning 'concept', because the conceit appeals to the mind.
Figures of speech are perceptible to the eye and the ear. Thus rhyme is a figure of speech, as is alliteration and anaphora. Figures of speech are sometimes called schemes Greek 'forms'. When two or more words or phrases contain an identical or similar vowel-sound, and the consonant-sounds that follow are identical or similar red and dead. Feminine rhyme occurs when two syllables are rhymed 'mother brother'. Half-rhyme occurs when the final consonants are the same but the preceding vowels are not. Eye rhyme occurs when two syllables look the same but are pronounced differently 'kind wind' - although sometimes changes in pronunciation have made what were formerly perfect rhymes become eye rhymes.
Rime riche occurs when the same combination of sounds is used in each element of the rhyme, but where the two identical sounding words have different senses 'maid made'. This was in the medieval period regarded as a particularly perfect form of rhyme.