Overleaf is a collaborative platform: Authors can easily invite colleagues drafft collaborate on their document. Authors can write using 'Rich Text mode' or regular 'Source Mode. The platform automatically compiles the document while an author writes, so the author can see what the finished file will look like in optiojs time. The template allows authors to submit manuscripts easily to ACM optioons within the Overleaf platform. Accurate semantic tagging provides a reader with quick content reference; facilitates the DL search for related literature; enables pper DL topic functions such as aggregated Drafh and journal coverage areas; and helps ACM promote opyions work in other online resources.
If you do not, your paper may be returned to you for proper formatting. For BibTeX o;tions see: The most notable reasons for this are: The most common type of acquired Color Vision Deficiency CVD is blue-yellow including mild cases for many older adults. Situational impairments e. It is NOT safe to encode information using only variations in color i. The Accessible Colour Evaluator: ISE offers a comprehensive range of services for authors including standard and premium English language editing, as well as illustration and translation services, and also has significant outreach in China.
Editing is available for both Word and LaTeX files. To take advantage of this partnership, visit http: Editing services are at author expense and do not guarantee publication of a manuscript. Please direct your technical query to: ACM Case Studies Written by leading domain experts for software engineers, ACM Case Studies provide an in-depth look at how software teams overcome specific challenges by implementing new technologies, adopting new practices, or a combination of both. Often through first-hand accounts, these pieces explore what the challenges were, the tools and techniques that were used to combat them, and the solution that was achieved.
For examples, see magazines such as Scientific American and American Scientist. The caption may also need to explain the meaning of columns in a table or of symbols in a figure. However, it's even better to put that information in the figure proper; for example, use labels or a legend. When the body of your paper contains information that belongs in a caption, there are several negative effects.
The reader is forced to hunt all over the paper in order to optiojs the figure. The flow of the writing is interrupted with details that are relevant only when one is looking at the figure. The figures paoer ineffective at drawing in a reader who is scanning the paper Compjting an important constituency that you should cater to! As with Computing options paper draftopttions pictorial elements consistently. Only use two different types of arrows or boxes, shading, etc. Almost any diagram paoer multiple types of elements requires a legend either explicitly in the diagram, or in the caption to explain what each one means; and so do many diagrams with just one type of element, to explain what it means.
This differentiation has no benefits, but it does have a drawback: You should simply call them all figures and number them sequentially. The body of each figure might be a table, a graph, a diagram, a screenshot, or any other content. Put figures at the top of the page, not in the middle or bottom. If a numbered, captioned figure appears in the middle or at the bottom of a page, it is harder for readers to find the next paragraph of text while reading, and harder to find the figure from a reference to it. Avoid bitmaps, which are hard to read.
Export figures from your drawing program in a vector graphics format. If you must use a bitmap which is only appropriate for screenshots of a toolthen produce them at very high resolution. Use the biggest-resolution screen you can, and magnify the partion you will copture. Computer program source code Your code examples should either be real code, or should be close to real code. Never use synthetic examples such as procedures or variables named foo or bar. Made-up examples are much harder for readers to understand and to build intuition regarding. Furthermore, they give the reader the impression that your technique is not applicable in practice — you couldn't find any real examples to illustrate it, so you had to make something up.
Any boldface or other highlighting should be used to indicate the most important parts of a text. Even if your IDE happens to do that, it isn't appropriate for a paper. For example, it would be acceptable to use boldface to indicate the names of procedures helping the reader find thembut not their return types. Naming Give each concept in your paper a descriptive name to make it more memorable to readers. If you can't think of a good name, then quite likely you don't really understand the concept. Think harder about it to determine its most important or salient features. It is better to name a technique or a paper section, etc.
Use terms consistently and precisely. While elegant variation may be appropriate in poems, novels, and some essays, it is not acceptable in technical writing, where you should clearly define terms when they are first introduced, then use them consistently. If you switch wording gratuitously, you will confuse the reader and muddle your point; the reader of a technical paper expects that use of a different term flags a different meaning, and will wonder what subtle difference you are trying to highlight.
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Choose the best optioons for the concept, and stick with it. Do not use a single Compuing to refer to multiple concepts. This is a place that use of synonyms to distinguish concepts that are unrelated from the point Computing options paper draft optons of your paper is acceptable. When you present a list, be consistent in how you introduce each element, and either use special formatting to make them stand out or else state the size of the list. I am intelligent. Second, I am bright. Also, I am clever. Finally, I am brilliant. First, I am intelligent. Third, I am clever. Fourth, I am brilliant.
Some people worry that such consistency and repetition is pedantic or stilted, or it makes the writing hard to follow. There is no need for such concerns: Choose good names not only for the concepts that you present in your paper, but for the document source file. Don't name the file after the conference to which you are submitting the paper might be rejected or the year. Even if the paper is accepted, such a name won't tell you what the paper is about when when you look over your source files in later years. Another benefit is that this will also lead you to think about the paper in terms of its content and contributions.
Here is a piece of advice that is specific to computing: Instead, use one of the standard terms fault, error, or failure. A fault is an underlying defect in a system, introduced by a human.
A draf is a user-visible manifestation of the fault or defect. Numbers and measurements Digits of precision: Don't report more digits of precision than the measurement process reliably and eraft produces. Computing options paper draft 3rd or 4th digit of precision is rarely accurate and generalizable; if you don't have confidence in it, omit it. Don't report more digits of precision than needed to convey your message. If the difference between Ckmputing. Reporting extra digits can even distract readers from the larger trends and the big picture. Including an inappropriate number of digits of precision can cast suspicion on all of your results, by giving readers the impression that you are statistically naive.
Use a consistent number of digits of precision. If the measured data are 1. Often it's appropriate to report percentages as whole numbers rather than using the same precision. If you do any computations such as ratios, you should internally use the full precision of your actual measurements, but your optipns will report only a limited number of digits of precision. Compputing a measurement is exact, such as a count of items, then it can be acceptable to give the entire number even if it has many digits; by contrast, timings and other inexact measurements should always be reported with a limited number of digits of precision.
Do not confuse relative and absolute measurements. You could report that your medicine's cure rate is. Psper would avoid craft terms entirely. Given the Compuging ease of misunderstanding what a percentage means or what its denominator is, I try to avoid percentages and focus on Comptuing whenever possible, especially for base measurements. For comparisons between techniques, percentages can be acceptable. Avoid presenting two different measurements that are both percentages but have different denominators. Processing data Your paper probably includes tables, bibliographies, or other content that is generated from external data.
Your paper may also be written in a text formatting language such as LaTeX. In each of these cases, it is necessary to run some external command to create some of the content or to create the final PDF. All of the steps to create your final paper should be clearly documented — say, in comments or in a notes file that you maintain with the paper — and, preferably, should be automated so that you only have to run one command that collects all the data, creates the tables, and generates the final PDF. If you document and automate these steps, then you can easily regenerate the paper when needed.
This is useful if you re-run experiments or analysis, or if you need to defend your results against a criticism by other researchers. If you leave some steps manual, then you or your colleagues are highly likely to make a mistake leading to a scientific error or to be unable to reproduce your results later. One good way to automate these tasks is by writing a program or creating a script for a build system such as Make or Ant. Related work A related work section should not only explain what research others have done, but in each case should compare and contrast that to your work and also to other related work.
After reading your related work section, a reader should understand the key idea and contribution of each significant piece of related work, how they fit together what are the common themes or approaches in the research community? Don't write a related work section that is just a list of other papers, with a sentence about each one that was lifted from its abstract, and without any critical analysis nor deep comparison to other work. Unless your approach is a small variation on another technique, it is usually best to defer the related work to the end of the paper. When it comes first, it gives readers the impression that your work is rather derivative.
If this is true, it is your responsibility to convey that clearly; it it is not true, then it's misleading to intimate it. You need to ensure that readers understand your technique in its entirety, and also understand its relationship to other work; different orders can work in different circumstances. Just as you should generally explain your technique first, and later show relationships with other work, it is also usually more effective to defer a detailed discussion of limitations to a later section rather than the main description of your technique. You should be straightforward and honest about the limitations, of course do mention them early on, even if you don't detail them thenbut don't destroy the coherence of your narrative or sour the reader on your technique.
Feedback Get feedback! Finish your paper well in advance, so that you can improve the writing. Even re-reading your own text after being away from it can show you things that you didn't notice. An outside reader can tell you even more. When readers misunderstand the paper, that is always at least partly the author's fault! Even if you think the readers have missed the point, you will learn how your work can be misinterpreted, and eliminating those ambiguities will improve the paper. Be considerate to your reviewers, who are spending their time to help you.
Here are several ways to do that. As with submission to conferences, don't waste anyone's time if there are major flaws. Only ask someone to read a part of your paper when you think you will learn something new, because you are not aware of serious problems. If only parts are ready, it is best to indicate this in the paper itself e.
Step by Step
It is most effective to get feedback sequentially rather than in parallel. Rather than asking 3 people to read the same version of your paper, ask one person to read the paper, then make corrections before asking the next person to read it, and so on. This prevents you from getting the same comments repeatedly — subsequent readers can give you new feedback rather than repeating what you already knew, and you'll get feedback on something that is closer to the final version. If you ask multiple reviewers at once, you are de-valuing their time — you are indicating that you don't mind if they waste their time saying something you already know.
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You might ask multiple reviewers if you are not confident of their judgment or if you are very confident the paper already is in good shape, in which case there are unlikely to be major issues that every reviewer stumbles over. It usually best not to email the document, but to provide a location from which reviewers can obtain the latest version of the paper, such as a version control repository or a URL you will update. That way, you won't clutter inboxes with many revisions, and readers can always get the most recent copy. Be generous with your time when colleagues need comments on their papers: Some Computing options paper draft your best feedback will be from yourself, especially as you get more thoughtful and introspective about your writing.
To take advantage of this, start writing early. One good way to do this is to write a periodic progress report that describes your successes and failures. The progress report will give you practice writing about your work, oftentimes trying out new explanations. Whereas you should start writing as early as possible, you don't need to put that writing in the form of a technical paper right away. In fact, it's usually best to outline the technical paper, and get feedback on that, before you start to fill in the sections with text.
You might think that you can copy existing text into the paper, but it usually works out better to write the information anew. With your knowledge of the overall structure, goals, and audience, you will be able to do a much better job. When outlining, I like to start with one sentence about the paper; then write one sentence for each section of the paper; then write one sentence for each subsection; then write one sentence for each paragraph think of this as the topic sentence ; and at that point, it's remarkably easy just to flesh out the paragraphs. Responding to conference reviews This section is most relevant to fields like computer science where conferences are the premier publication venue.
Responding to journal reviews is different. Many conferences provide an author response period: Your paper will only be accepted if there is a champion for the paper: Your response needs to give ammunition to your champion to overcome objections. If there isn't a champion, then the main goal of your response is to create that champion. Read the reviews and decide what points you will respond to. You need to focus on the most important and substantive ones. In your responses, admit your errors forthrightly. Don't ignore or avoid key issues, especially ones that multiple reviewers brought up.
Your response to each point will be one paragraph in your response. Start the paragraph with a brief heading or title about the point. Do not assume that the reviewers remember everything that was written by every reviewer, nor that they will re-read their reviews before reading your response. A little context will help them determine what you are talking about and will make the review stand on its own. This also lets you frame the issues in your own words, which may be clearer or address a more relevant point than the reviews did.
4 Steps to writing an options paper
Organize your responses thematically. If a given section has just one paragraph, then you Compjting use the paragraph heading as the section heading. Order the sections from most to least important. This is better than organizing your response by reviewer, first addressing the comments of papr 1, then reviewer 2, and so forth. Downsides of by-reviewer organization include: It can encourage you not to give sufficient context. It does not encourage putting related information together nor important information first. You want to encourage all reviewers to read the entire response, rather than encouraging them to just look at one part.
When multiple reviewers raised the same issue, then no matter where you address it, it's possible for a reviewer to overlook it and think you failed to address it. You don't want to make glaringly obvious which issues in a review you had to ignore for reasons of space or other reasons.
You don't want to make glaringly obvious that you dravt much more time and space on one reviewer than another. Make the response be about the science, not about the people. Finally, be Commputing and thankful ophions reviewers. They have spent considerable time and energy to give you feedback even if it doesn't seem to you that they papper Rejection If you submit technical papers, you will experience rejection. In some cases, rejection indicates that you should move on and begin a different line of research. In most cases, the reviews offer an opportunity to improve the work, and so you should be very grateful for a rejection!
It is much better for your career if a good paper appears at a later date, rather than than a poor paper earlier or a sequence of weak papers. Even small flaws or omissions in an otherwise good paper may lead to rejection. This is particularly at the elite venues with small acceptance rates, where you should aim your work. Referees are generally people of good will, but different referees at a conference may have different standards, so the luck of the draw in referees is a factor in acceptance. The wrong lesson to learn from rejection is discouragement or a sense of personal failure.
Many papers — even papers that later win awards — are rejected at least once. The feedback you receive, and the opportunity to return to your work, will invariably improve your results. Don't be put off by a negative tone in the reviews. The referees are trying to help you, and the bast way to do that is to point out how your work can be improved. I often write a much longer review, with more suggestions for improvement, for papers that I like; if the paper is terrible, I may not be able to make as many concrete suggestions, or my high-level comments may make detailed comments moot. If a reviewer didn't understand something, then the main fault almost always lies with your writing.
If you blame a lazy or dumb reviewer, you are missing the opportunity to improve. Reviewers are not perfect, but they work hard to give you helpful suggestions, so you should give them the benefit of the doubt. Remember that just as it is hard to convey technical ideas in your paper and if you are getting a rejection, that is evidence that you did not succeed! You should closely attend to both the explicit comments, and to underlying issues that may have led to those comments — it isn't always easy to capture every possible comment in a coherent manner.
Think about how to improve your research and drart writing, even beyond the explicit suggestions Computint the review — the opions responsibility for your research and writing belongs with you. Should you submit an imperfect paper? On the plus side, getting feedback on your paper will help you to improve it. On the other hand, you don't pqper to waste reviewers' time nor to get a reputation for submitting half-baked work. If you know the flaws that will make the referees reject your paper, or the valid criticisms that they will raise, then don't submit the paper.
Only submit if you aren't aware of show-stoppers and you are not embarrassed for the community to associate your name with the work, in its current form. Don't bother to read both the student and instructor manuals — the student one is a subset of the instructor one. Principles Correctness. Write correct English, but know that you have more latitude than your high-school English teachers may have given you. Consistent names. Refer to each significant character algorithm, concept, language using the same word everywhere.